Migrating VMs from VMware Cloud on AWS (VMC) to Nutanix Cloud Clusters on AWS (NC2)


In this blog post we explore two ways to use Nutanix Move 5.3 to migrate Virtual Machines from an existing VMware Cloud on AWS (VMC) environment to Nutanix Cloud Clusters on AWS (NC2). This is done while preserving both IP and MAC addresses of the VMs being migrated.

The most straight forward method is to deploy NC2 into the Connected VPC. This is a VPC which is attached at time of deployment of the VMware Cloud on AWS environment and is owned by the customer. Alternatively, we can deploy NC2 into a completely separate VPC and connect to the VMware Cloud on AWS cluster through a VMware Transit Connect (VTGW).

Architecture overview

The two methods are illustrated below. Method 1 is recommended due to the ease of setup, simple networking and no data transfer charges. However, care need to be taken to ensure there is no overlap with any existing resources deployed into the Connected VPC. For example by creating new private subnets in the Connected VPC specifically for the NC2 deployment.

Method 2 covers migrating via a VMware Transit Connect (VTGW). Although it has additional routing considerations, this is also a fully viable option. In this example we peer the VTGW with a normal customer-controlled AWS Transit Gateway (TGW). Note that with Method 2 the VTGW can also connect directly to a VPC without the need for a TGW, but this will limit the routing options for the customer.

It’s important to keep in mind that both options can migrate VMs from VMC without changing IP or MAC addresses. Neither option require L2 Extension of user VM networks. This underlines the ease of which a migration like this can be done. There are of course some caveats. Refer to the VM networking section below for more detail.

Method 1: Migrate from VMC to NC2 deployed into the VMC Connected VPC
Method 2: Migrate VMs via VTGW into a separate or new VPC

VM networking

The whole migration can be done without L2 extension of VM networks. On the VMware Cloud on AWS side Virtual Machines in VMC are connected to overlay networks created with NSX-T using the VMC management console. These are represented by the “” network in this example. The same CIDR ranges can be created as overlay networks by using Nutanix Flow on the NC2 cluster. Thereby, when VMs are migrated from VMC to NC2, they don’t need to change their IP or MAC addresses.

Note that if L2 Extension is not used, there is no communication between the overlay networks in NC2 and the overlay networks in VMC. Therefore, plan the migration so that VMs which need to communicate are moved together.

Also note that Flow does not advertise the overlay networks into the VPC route table. As long as VMware Cloud on AWS is attached to the connected VPC, the routes for the VMs will point to the active ENI created during the VMC cluster deployment. Destroying the VMC cluster will remove these ENIs and the corresponding routes from the Connected VPC route table.

Migration tool: Move

The Nutanix Move migration tool has with the recent 5.3 release added support for migrations from VMware Cloud on AWS. In this example, Move is deployed into the NC2 cluster. Both the VMC and the NC2 environments have been registered with Move and the inventories of both show up and are available for migration. More details in the Move deployment section below.

Method 1: Deploy NC2 into the Connected VPC

If there is enough space to deploy NC2 into the already existing Connected VPC in the customer account, this is the easiest and most straight-forward option. Connectivity and routing between the Connected VPC and the VMware Cloud on AWS environment is already configured as part of the VMC deployment. Do make sure that the CIDR ranges of any existing subnets are sufficient for deployment of NC2 and that there aren’t already resources deployed into those subnets which could interfere with the NC2 components. If the VPC CIDR range has space for new subnets, consider creating new private subnets to hold the NC2 deployment.

  • Benefits
    • No need to create new VPC and subnets
    • VPC is already connected to VMC and routing is configured
    • Data transfer is free of charge
    • High link / data transfer speed

  • Drawbacks
    • VPC may already be fully populated with resources
    • VPC may not have the correct CIDR ranges for NC2

Method 1: Steps to deploy

Simply sign up for NC2 or start a trial and deploy through the NC2 deployment wizard. Select the latest version – 6.8, to get Flow overlay networking and the centralized management through Prism Central included.

Note that NC2 can only be deployed into private AWS subnets and that internet connectivity need to be present. If no direct internet connectivity is available, proxy support is also available through the deployment wizard.

VMware Cloud on AWS automatically updates the default route table in the connected VPC with the routes to vCenter, ESXi and the user networks. However, if NC2 is deployed into a subnet which doesn’t use the default route table those routes won’t be present. Ensure the subnet NC2 is deployed into is updated with the routes to the VMware Cloud on AWS environment. Particularly the management subnet which holds vCenter and the ESXi hosts. Also, if necessary, update the security group on the active VMC ENI to allow access from the NC2 subnet.

After the NC2 cluster is deployed, follow the steps further down in this article to open the VMC firewall for vCenter and ESXi, deploy Move 5.3 on top of NC2 and register both the NC2 cluster and the VMC vCenter instance.

Method 2: Deploy NC2 into a separate VPC and migrate through a VTGW

If deploying NC2 into the Connected VPC is not possible or desirable, there is another option available. VMware Cloud on AWS supports creating a VMware Transit Connect (VTGW). The VTGW is a VMware-controlled Transit Gateway (TGW) – basically a regional cloud router. The VTGW can in turn be attached either directly to another VPC or peered with a customer controlled TGW. The TGW can then be attached to one or several VPCs of the customers choosing. Do keep cross-AZ and cross-region charges in mind when planning the architecture so that they can be minimized or avoided.

  • Benefits
    • Once set up, migration is straight forward
    • The customer can use any VPC for the NC2 deployment, including a new one
    • High link / data transfer speed

  • Drawbacks
    • Routing requires additional steps and knowledge
    • Data transfer is charged (roughly 2 cents/Gb)
    • Although this example use a TGW and a VTGW, data transfer charges do not end up being doubled. The peering attachment does not incur data transfer charges unless they go across AZs or regions.
    • (V)TGW attachments are charged (roughly 7 cents/h in ap-northeast-1)

Method 2: Steps to deploy: Create the VTGW

Unless already present, go to the AWS console and deploy a Transit Gateway (TGW) in the same region as VMC. Then, in the VMware Cloud on AWS management console, go to “SDDC groups” and deploy a new VTGW. Once deployed, navigate to the “External TGW” tab, click “Add TGW” and enter the account number and the ID of the customer TGW to connect to as well as the regions to use.

In the “Routes” box, enter the CIDR range of the VPC which NC2 is to be deployed into. In this example, “”.

This will advertise the NC2 VPC CIDR to VMware Cloud on AWS and also create a peering attachment invitation from the VMware AWS account to the customer AWS account.

Method 2: Steps to deploy: Configure the TGW

The invitation to add the peering attachment can be accepted through “Transit Gateway Attachments” in the AWS console in the customer account.

While here, take the opportunity to add an attachment to the VPC into which NC2 will be deployed.

Accepting the peering invitation in the AWS console

In the customer AWS account, navigate to the Transit Gateway route table section, select the route table for the TGW peered with VMC and add the routes for the VMC networks. In this case “”, “” and “”. Note that these are added as Static routes.

In addition we have the “” network added via the VPC attachment. There is no need to add static routes for this network as it is propagated automatically.

Method 2: Steps to deploy: Configure the routes to the VMC cluster in the NC2 VPC

The final step for the routing is to add the routes for VMware Cloud on AWS into the route table(s) of the VPC which NC2 is to be deployed into. In our example, “”, “” and “” are added as routes via the TGW attachment. “” is our local network and there is a quad-zero route to the internet via a NAT GW.

This concludes the setup steps specific to Method 2. Please continue with the firewall settings, NC2 cluster deployment and Move installation below.

Firewall settings: Allow Move to access the VMC vCenter and ESXi hosts

Move requires access to the VMC vCenter instance and the ESXi hosts in order to migrate virtual machines. Through the VMware Cloud on AWS console, add a Management Gateway firewall rule to allow the NC2 VPC to access these resources.

  • Add the NC2 VPC CIDR range to an MGW inventory group
    • Navigate to “Networking & Security”
    • Click “Groups” under “Inventory”
    • Click “Management Groups” to edit the groups pertaining to the MGW
    • Add or modify a group and add the CIDR range of the VPC which NC2 is deployed into
      • To modify an existing group, click the 3-dot menu on the left of the group and select “Edit”
Adding the NC2 VPC CIDR range to an MGW inventory group
  • Add the MGW inventory group to the MGW firewall rules
    • Navigate to “Networking & Security”
    • Click “Gateway Firewall” under “Security”
    • Click “Management Gateway” to edit rules for the MGW
    • Update the rules for ESXi and vCenter by adding the MGW inventory group containing the NC2 VPC CIDR range with the action “Allow”
Adding the MGW inventory group to a MGW firewall rule allowing access to ESXi and vCenter from the NC2 VPC

Deploy the NC2 cluster

Sign up for NC2 or start a trial and deploy through the NC2 deployment wizard. Select the latest version – 6.8, to get Flow overlay networking and the centralized management through Prism Central included. When asked, select the VPC and the private subnets desired. In this case subnets in the “” VPC.

After the NC2 cluster is deployed, deploy Move 5.3 on top of NC2 and register both the NC2 cluster and vCenter from the VMC environment.

Install Move and register NC2 and VMC

Download Move 5.3 from the download page: https://portal.nutanix.com/page/downloads?product=move

Follow the Move manual to deploy Move 5.3 on the NC2 cluster in AWS: https://portal.nutanix.com/page/documents/list?type=software&filterKey=software&filterVal=Move

VDDK upload: After Move is deployed, add the NC2 and VMC environments. After adding the VMC environment it will prompt for a VDDK file. This file can be downloaded from the VMware support site. The version used in this example is: “VMware-vix-disklib-7.0.3-19513565.x86_64”. Please use the Linux version.

Migrate the VMs to NC2

If IP retention is desired, use Flow in Prism Central to create an overlay VPC and subnet which matches the CIDR range of the NSX-T subnet in VMC from which the VMs will be migrated. In this example “” is used.

Now the only thing remaining is to create a Migration Plan in Move where VMC is the source and NC2 is the target. Ensure to select the correct target network to ensure IP retention works as expected.

Wrap up

This has been an example of the steps required for migrating Virtual Machines from VMware Cloud on AWS (VMC) to Nutanix Cloud Clusters (NC2) without changing the IP or MAC addresses of the migrated VMs. For more information or for a demo, please reach out to your Nutanix representative or partner.

Additional resources

Quickly generate the on-prem commands to connect a Mikrotik switch / router running RouterOS to an existing AWS S2S VPN.

Problem statement

For infrequent VPN connectivity between on-prem labs / data centers and AWS it doesn’t make sense to have a permanent VPN connection up 24/7. However, configuring the on-premises Mikrotik router each time is time consuming and error-prone when done manually.


This Python script connects to AWS using boto3, reads the details for the first VPN connection it can find and then generates the commands required to set up:

  • Inside IP addresses for the VPN tunnel
  • IPsec proposal settings
  • IPset profile settings
  • IPsec peers
  • IPsec secrets
  • BGP peers
  • BGP networks to advertise
  • Firewall setting
  • etc.

After the commands are generated, simply copy and paste into a Mikrotik CLI window over SSH or similar and the connection will come up in a couple of minutes.


This script only handles the on-prem side of the connectivity. It assumes the following is already in place at the AWS side:

  • VPC with subnets
  • CGW (Customer Gateway)
  • VGW (Virtual Private Gateway) which is attached to the VPC
  • VPN connection configured to use the VGW and CGW

If you require information on how to set up the AWS-side components, please refer to this blog post: https://jonamiki.com/2022/05/04/mikrotik-vpn-to-aws-vpc/

Script download

Please refer to this GitHub page for the script itself:


Example of running the script

The AWS side has been configured but IPSEC and BGP are both down

Running the script generates the commands required to connect the Mikrotik to AWS

Copy and paste the generated commands into the Mikrotik CLI

After a couple of minutes, IPSEC is up and routes are dynamically shared over BGP

More information

For more information, including how to set up the AWS VPN configuration and a more detailed explanation of the manual steps to configure the Mikrotik router, please refer to this blog post: https://jonamiki.com/2022/05/04/mikrotik-vpn-to-aws-vpc/

Running containerized game servers with EKS Anywhere on Nutanix


Did you ever wish you could host your own multi-player gaming servers with k8s? In that case I have great news, because in this post we’re covering how to deploy online multi-player game server containers with EKS Anywhere on Nutanix infrastructure.


The game in question is Xonotic, which is a classic, fast-paced, multi-player shooting game based on the Quake engine. To deploy it we use Agones – a platform for running, scaling and orchestrate multi-player gaming containers on k8s.

Agones, in turn, goes on top of EKS Anywhere which runs on a Nutanix cluster. In this case we have deployed a cluster in our Phoenix DC, which is also linked with a Nutanix NC2 cluster on AWS.

Nutanix clusters on-prem in Phoenix and in AWS are managed holistically through the Nutanix Prism Central management console. K8s management is done by registering the EKS Anywhere with the EKS service in AWS. K8s node management is done through SSM or Amazon Systems Manager.


The two Nutanix clusters (on-prem and cloud) are linked via a Direct Connect line and can be managed holistically using private networking.

The gaming components are managed through standard the k8s toolset while EKS in the AWS console is used for monitoring of the cluster.

The k8s nodes run as virtual machines on Nutanix and each have the SSM (AWS Systems Manager) agent installed. This makes it possible to monitor the VMs, do patch management and even remote connectivity through the AWS console

Disclaimer: Inventory data from SSM can be sent to an S3 bucket, converted with Athena and then displayed in graphical form through Amazon Quicksight, as is shown to the right in the diagram. This guide doesn’t go through those particular steps, but they are well documented on the Amazon website.

Overview of the architecture both on-prem and in the cloud. Pardon the Japanese script here and there -this was created for a Japanese event after all

The EKS management and SSM connectivity is done to public AWS endpoints in this case, so it goes over the internet. It would also have been possible to do this over private networking through the DX connection, but I don’t have the IAM privileges to create anything new in the account NC2 is running in.

Overview of steps

The following steps will be covered while building the environment

1Holistic Nutanix cluster managementPrism Central download and configuration
2Building EKS Anywhere node image #1Download and deploy Ubuntu 22.04 image
3Building EKS Anywhere node image #2Create VM and follow image-builder steps
4EKS Anywhere deploymentRun EKS Anywhere installer from Ubuntu
5k8s cluster managementRegister EKS Anywhere with AWS
6k8s node managementInstall SSM agent on EKS Anywhere nodes
7Game platform orchestrationInstallation of Agones platform
8Game server deploymentCreation of Xonotic pods through Agones
9Good-old fun!Install the Xonotic client and go fragging!

Step 1: Prism Central download and configuration

If not yet deployed, download and deploy Prism Central through the Prism Element UI as per the below.

Once Prism Central has been deployed, reset the admin password over the CLI. SSH to the Prism Central IP using the user “nutanix” and the password “nutanix/4u”. Reset the password using:

ncli user reset-password user-name=admin password=yourpassword

On each cluster, register with Prism Central through the Prism Element UI. Once registered, the clusters show up in Prism Central as per the below

Step 2: Download and deploy Ubuntu 22.04 image

From the Ubuntu website, copy the URL to the Ubuntu image (Jammy Jellyfish) from here:


Be sure to pick the ubuntu-22.04-server-cloudimg-amd64.img and not the disk-kvm image as the kvm image won’t boot.

Add it as a DISK image from URL in the Nutanix web UI:

Step 3: Create VM and follow image-builder steps

Use the image to create a new Ubuntu VM.

  • I used 2 CPUs with 2 cores each and 8 Gb of RAM.
  • Delete the CD-ROM drive
  • Add a NIC.
  • Set the disk to clone from the image created above
  • Set boot mode to UEFI rather than the default BIOS.

When given the option to add a Custom Script, add a cloud init snippet as per the below to enable SSH (with password rather than key) and set your password

password: vrySekrPaswd1%
chpasswd: { expire: False }
ssh_pwauth: True

Disk update: You’ll note that the disk created from the image is very small – just 2.2 Gb. Changing the disk size during VM creation isn’t supported, but it can be made larger afterwards. Just accept the size for now and update the disk size once the VM shows up in the inventory. I set mine to 50 Gb.

Don’t start the VM just yet. First we want to add a serial port to the VM through the Nutanix CLI. SSH to any CVM in the cluster and issue the below command:

acli vm.serial_port_create <VM_NAME> index=0 type=kNull

In my case that looks like

nutanix@NTNX-16SM6B260127-C-CVM:$ acli vm.serial_port_create ubuntu-k8s-image-builder index=0 type=kNull
VmUpdate: pending
VmUpdate: complete

Now we can power on the VM and log in over SSH using the password set through the cloud init script.

For the image creation, there are official instructions from AWS here. However, I found that some of the official steps needed to be modified to work. Please refer to the below if you want to do the same as I used when creating the image:

As user “ubuntu” on the image-builder VM:

sudo adduser image-builder
sudo usermod -aG sudo image-builder
sudo su - image-builder

Now we have switched to the “image-builder” user and continue the process:

sudo apt install python3-pip -y
pip3 install --user ansible-core==2.15.9
export PATH=$PATH:/home/image-builder/.local/bin
cd /tmp
BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL=$(curl -s https://anywhere-assets.eks.amazonaws.com/releases/eks-a/manifest.yaml | yq ".spec.releases[] | select(.version==\"$EKSA_RELEASE_VERSION\").bundleManifestUrl")
IMAGEBUILDER_TARBALL_URI=$(curl -s $BUNDLE_MANIFEST_URL | yq ".spec.versionsBundles[0].eksD.imagebuilder.uri")
curl -s $IMAGEBUILDER_TARBALL_URI | tar xz ./image-builder
sudo install -m 0755 ./image-builder /usr/local/bin/image-builder

Now a “which image-builder” should show the binary installed in /usr/local/bin as per the below

image-builder@ubuntu:~$ which image-builder

Also, a “which ansible” should show it installed in the local user directory as follows:

image-builder@ubuntu:~$ which ansible

image-builder@ubuntu:~$ ansible --version
ansible [core 2.15.9]

Now we create the “nutanix.json” file to enable image-builder to use our Prism Central to create our k8s image

cat > nutanix.json
  "nutanix_cluster_name": "YOUR-CLUSTER-NAME",
  "nutanix_subnet_name": "YOUR-SUBNET",
  "nutanix_endpoint": "PRISM-CENTRAL-IP",
  "nutanix_insecure": "true",
  "nutanix_port": "PRISM-CENTRAL-PORT (DEFAULT 9440)",
  "nutanix_username": "admin",
  "nutanix_password": "PRISM-CENTRAL-PASSWORD"

Now we are ready to execute image-builder and create the image. In this case we create an image for version 1.28. This will take around 10 minutes to complete

image-builder build --os ubuntu --hypervisor nutanix --release-channel 1-28 --nutanix-config nutanix.json

Once complete you should be greeted with the following message:

In the list of images in Prism, the new k8s image will show up as follows

Step 4: EKS Anywhere deployment

Now we have an image and are ready to start deploying EKS Anywhere …. well, almost. First we create a configuration file which then is used as the template for the deployment.

Install Docker:

Official instructions can be found here: https://docs.docker.com/engine/install/ubuntu/

After the install, add the “image-builder” user to the docker group so we can use docker without “sudo”

sudo usermod -aG docker image-builder

Log out and back in again for the group change to take effect, then test as follows

image-builder@ubuntu:~$ docker ps -a

Install eksctl, eksctl-anywhere and kubectl

Official instructions can be found here: https://anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/docs/getting-started/install/

Create a cluster-config.yaml file

eksctl anywhere generate clusterconfig AWESOME-CLUSTER-NAME --provider nutanix > cluster-config.yaml

Edit the cluster-config.yaml file to adjust to your local environment

Update the cluster-config.yaml file created in the previous step to point to the Prism Central environment you’d like to use. For a lab environment you may also want to disable TLS certificate check. Official instructions for how to modify the file are listed here.

The entire file is too long to upload here, but the fields I’ve modified are:

controlPlaneConfiguration.endpoint.hostFloating IP to use for control plane VM
kubernetesVersion1.28 (to match with the image built)
spec.endpointPrism Central IP / FQDN
spec.insecuretrue (spec.insecure is a new entry)
spec.cluster.namePrism Element cluster name
spec.image.nameName of k8s image created earlier
spec.subnet.nameName of subnet to use for k8s nodes
spec.users.name.sshAuthorizedKeysCopy and paste your RSA SSH key here

Quick screenshot showcasing the addition of the “spec.insecure” parameter for lab clusters without a valid SSH/TLS cert:

Deploying the cluster

First export the credentials to Prism Central as per the below:

image-builder@ubuntu:~$ export EKSA_NUTANIX_USERNAME="admin"
image-builder@ubuntu:~$ export EKSA_NUTANIX_PASSWORD="PRISM-CENTRAL-PWD"

Now are are ready to deploy with the cluster-config.yaml file as our template

eksctl anywhere create cluster -f cluster-config.yaml

After a successful deployment, the below will be shown:

Get the credentials for your cluster


List the k8s nodes and their IP addresses

kubectl get nodes -o wide

Step 5: Register EKS Anywhere with AWS

First we need the aws cli installed and configured with an access key and a secret access key

sudo apt install awscli

Then configure with your credentials

aws configure

Generate the EKS connector configuration files

eksctl register cluster --name YOUR-CLUSTER-NAME --provider EKS_ANYWHERE --region YOUR-REGION

This will generate three yaml files like so

image-builder@ubuntu:~/EKS-A$ ls -1

Then apply the configuration files with kubectl

kubectl apply -f CONFIG-FILE

Access the AWS console, navigate to Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service and verify that the cluster shows up as it should. Ensure you are in the region you selected when generating the yaml config files

Click the cluster name , go to the Resources tab and select Pods. Here you filter to find the Xonotic game pods as per the below

Step 6: Install SSM agent on EKS Anywhere nodes

With the AWS Systems Manager agent installed, it is possible to monitor the k8s cluster nodes, get their software inventory, do patch management, remote access and various other things

The first thing we do is to create a managed node activation in the AWS Console. Navigate to Systems Manager and select Hybrid Activations. Be sure to pick the right region.

Save the resulting activation details as they are used when registering installing the SSM agent and registering the the k8s nodes

For the agent installation and registration, please follow the official guide here:


Once the agent is installed and registered, the nodes will show up in SSM as per the below

Step 7: Installation of Agones platform

First of all, install helm so we can use helm charts

sudo snap install helm --classic

Add the Agones repo, update and install

helm repo add agones https://agones.dev/chart/stable
helm repo update
helm install v1.38.0 --namespace agones-system --create-namespace agones/agones

Verify the Agones install by listing the pods

kubectl --namespace agones-system get pods -o wide

Step 8: Creation of Xonotic pods through Agones

Now when we have the Agones game orchestration platform running, all we need to do is to deploy the actual game containers into it thusly

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/googleforgames/quilkin/main/examples/agones-xonotic-sidecar/sidecar.yaml

We can now list the game servers

kubectl get gameservers

Step 9: Install the Xonotic client and go fragging!

The Xonotic game client is available for download here:


Mac users on Apple silicon can install the client with Brew

brew install xonotic

Start the client, select multi-player and add the IP and port of your game server

Play the game!


This has been a somewhat lengthy guide on configuring k8s on top of Nutanix with the intent of running containerized game servers. Hopefully it has been informative. Originally I wanted to expand the section on SSM and other features on managing the cluster through AWS but thought this blog post was long enough already. Perhaps those areas will be worth re-visiting later on if there’s interest.

Happy Fragging!

Links and References

  • https://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/22.04/release/
  • https://portal.nutanix.com/page/documents/kbs/details?targetId=kA00e000000CshJCAS
  • https://image-builder.sigs.k8s.io/capi/providers/nutanix.html
  • https://anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/docs/osmgmt/artifacts/#building-node-images
  • https://anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/docs/getting-started/nutanix/
  • https://anywhere.eks.amazonaws.com/docs/getting-started/nutanix/nutanix-spec/
  • https://devopscube.com/eks-anywhere-cluster/
  • https://googleforgames.github.io/quilkin/main/book/quickstarts/agones-xonotic-sidecar.html

Quickly create VMs with vSphere and Terraform

This is a beginner-friendly intro to creating (and destroying!) VMs on VMware vSphere using Terraform. It includes code with plenty of comments to show what option does what.

Bonus: Want to run a script or execute PowerShell commands after VM creation? Perhaps download and install some software? No problems – the code includes a section on this as well (for Windows that is).

Download the code

The annotated TF files used in this example can be found on GitHub here:

Repository: https://github.com/jonas-werner/vsphere-terraform/

Direct download link: https://codeload.github.com/jonas-werner/vsphere-terraform/zip/refs/heads/main

Initialize Terraform

To start with we want to initialize Terraform and download any providers required to run our VM deployment. In this case we’re using the vSphere provider since we’re interacting with a VMware vCenter server.

Enter the directory with the downloaded TF files. Pick either the Windows or Linux example. After that, initialize Terraform with:

terraform init

Creating a plan

Start by updating the vSphere login information and other details to match your local vSphere environment. For example what DC, Resource Pool and template VM to use.

When that’s done, proceed to create plan based on the TF file(s) in the current directory by using:

terraform plan -out win.plan

In this case we use the name “win.plan” but any name is OK. The output will show what Terraform will do when the plan is applied. Among other things it will list the outputs requested for this particular .tf file. In this example we have asked for the VM names and the IP addresses as per the below:

Plan: 3 to add, 0 to change, 0 to destroy.

Changes to Outputs:
  + vmnames    = [
      + "windows-vm-001",
      + "windows-vm-002",
      + "windows-vm-003",
  + vmnameswip = [
      + (known after apply),
      + (known after apply),
      + (known after apply),

Apply the plan

Now when we have a plan created, apply it with:

terraform apply win.plan

After the deployment is complete it’ll show the updated information for the VM:s as follows:

Apply complete! Resources: 3 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.

vmnames = [
vmnameswip = [

In vCenter we can now see we’ve got three new VMs

Destroying the VMs

If these are test VMs you may want to remove them after testing is done. To clean up, simply issue:

terraform destroy

or, if you want to skip the confirmation prompt:

teraform destroy --auto-approve


“Failed to verify certificate”: Most lab environments wouldn’t use a proper TLS certificate for vCenter. In those cases the below error will show when running “terraform plan”:

│ Error: error setting up new vSphere SOAP client: Post "https://vcenter.lab.jonamiki.com/sdk": tls: failed to verify certificate: x509: certificate signed by unknown authority

│ with provider["registry.terraform.io/hashicorp/vsphere"],
│ on main_win.tf line 3, in provider "vsphere":
│ 3: provider "vsphere" {

The solution is simple – Just uncomment the line below in the vsphere provider section in the terraform .tf file:

allow_unverified_ssl = true

Customization of guest OS fails: One of the following errors may show up if the source VM don’t have VMware Tools installed. The fix, of course, is to install VMware tools in the template VM and then run Terraform again:

Customization of the guest operating system is not supported due to the given reason: Tools is not installed in the GuestOS. Please install the latest version of open-vm-tools or VMware Tools to enable GuestCustomization.
Error: error sending customization spec: Customization of the guest operating system is not supported

VMs boot to a black screen without starting the OS: This is usually down to using EFI vs. BIOS in the VM settings in the .tf file. Try switching to BIOS from EFI or vice versa if the newly created VMs won’t start up.

  firmware         = "efi" 
  firmware         = "bios"

Security considerations for VMware Cloud on AWS

VMware Cloud on AWS is configured to be highly secure from the get-go. However, there are additional add-on services both on the VMware Cloud on AWS side and the AWS native service side which can be of benefit for those looking to add additional layers of security to their cloud environments. This guide aims to provide an overview of those services as well as list links for further reading


Maintaining tight access control for workloads and ensuring they are on the latest patch revisions is central to running an efficient and secure IT environment. In this post we cover how to heighten security by leveraging the tools which comes with AWS Systems Manager and complementing AWS native services. This way IT administrators will be empowered with tools central to their quest of reaching higher security levels while simultaneously being able to reduce management overhead.

Defining good security practices

While security in both on-premises and cloud environments is a broad topic, there are a few security practices which generally makes good sense to implement regardless of where workloads reside. In this section we will cover a few points to define good security practices and in the latter half we will look at what tools can be leveraged to implement this in practice.

Restricting access

Adhering to the principle of least privilege by assigning access to workloads only to those who actually need to administer those workloads. It is easy to assign a single or a few administrative accounts with blanket access across all virtual machines in a VMware environment but it’s certainly not best practice. We will look at tools to help divide and limit access as required in this document.

Tracking access

After limiting access to those who require it for their respective roles it also makes sense to track who has accessed what virtual machine at what time and to centralize the logging of workload access. This makes it easier to back track in case of either a security breach or purely for troubleshooting purposes.

Limiting the attack surface

Virtual machines are generally accessed by administrators over RDP for Windows or SSH for Linux. These protocols are frequently the first ones that hackers will try to exploit. Normally closing these access ports would make managing the workloads remotely a challenge, if not impossible but when using AWS native services in conjunction with VMware Cloud on AWS the methods and options for secure remote systems management increase. For this we leverage AWS Systems Manager in combination with VMware Cloud on AWS.

Having insight into what software is installed where

While keeping operating systems patched and up to date help safeguard against known Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs), old or non-approved software can also provide attackers with additional vectors through which to gain access to otherwise protected systems. Gaining clear insight into what is installed and what versions are running in an environment is usually a priority for the security minded IT administrator. Here AWS Systems Manager can be a powerful ally as it integrates well with the virtual machines running on top of VMware Cloud on AWS.

Addressing CVEs quickly

New bugs are found frequently and as they are made public they usually end up in the CVE database. Patching these security holes is of course vital in maintaining a secure environment. Likewise is scanning for attempts to exploit these vulnerabilities with an IDS / IPS system. VMware Cloud on AWS add-ons can be leveraged to assist with this.

Alerting when something happens

Hackers will often spend a significant time in a compromised environment while they investigate ways to broaden their attack by mapping out the network and additional systems to target. These days, assuming that an attack will succeed at some point is common. Instead of just hardening the external-facing systems the internal systems should get a similar treatment. Equally important is to get alerted at an early stage to limit any potential blast radius after a system has been compromised.

Centralized logging

The first indication that intrusion attempts are being made can often be found in the log files of the systems being accessed. Having single source of truth into which all logs and access attempts are sent is vital when it comes to maintaining a birds-eye-view of an environment. It also makes it a lot easier if data doesn’t have to be correlated across multiple locations and tools.

Ensuring firewalls are configured correctly and notify / revert if this changes

A properly configured firewall can make the difference between a secure system and one which can easily be hacked. The old “hard shell – soft core” approach is no longer relevant in today’s environments when everything is connected and therefore potentially an access vector for an aggressor. Keeping standards for firewall configurations and ensuring they are properly applied on an ongoing basis is a great help in making sure that internal as well as external systems are properly protected against attack.

Get notified and react quickly if a hackers gain a foothold in your environment (IDS / IPS)

It’s not a question of “if” but “when” an attack succeeds. Once an assailant has gained a foothold they are inside your environment. The next step is to scan and map out other vulnerable systems in the vicinity. Quick reaction times can limit or even prevent any further intrusion.

Guard against ransomware by having immutable backups of important data and virtual machines

Hoping for the best and planning for the worst case scenarios involve having backups and a Disaster Recovery (DR) plan for when data has become corrupted and / or encrypted by ransomware. Read more about VMware Cloud on AWS add-ons for DR and how AWS native tools can provide immutable backups of all virtual machines and their data later in this blog post.

Using VMware Cloud on AWS add-ons and AWS native services to enhance security

The above may be good points for enhancing security, but how can they be implemented in a VMware Cloud on AWS environment? The following three sections show how to do so in more practical detail:

  1. Leveraging AWS Systems Manager (SSM)
  2. Leveraging VMware Cloud on AWS add-ons
  3. Leveraging additional AWS native services

1. Leveraging AWS Systems Manager

AWS Systems Manager involves several services which in combination provide powerful management capabilities.

For Restricting access and Limiting the attack surface it is possible to use AWS SSM Session Manager for remote access rather than connecting to virtual machines over RDP or SSH. Thereby commonly used ports such as 3389 (RDP) and 22 (SSH) can be closed and will therefore significantly reduce the attack surface of the virtual machines.

Additionally, in many cases it is possible to avoid accessing virtual machines directly. AWS SSM Fleet Manager provides a convenient way of connecting to virtual machines by offering access to Windows registry, Windows logs, Windows file system as well as command line access to Windows PowerShell – all through the AWS Console. Graphical desktop access is of course also possible and can be done by forwarding the RDP port of the virtual machine to the local IT admins computer. For Linux machines the access can be had in the same way and a connection to the Linux shell prompt is readily available through the AWS Console.

For Addressing CVEs quickly AWS Systems Manager offers Patch Manager – a centralized way to ensure VMware Cloud on AWS virtual machines and EC2 instances have their latest security patches applied. Create patch baselines, set maintenance windows and tag virtual machines into groups to ensure continuous uptime while patching takes place.

When it comes to gaining Insight into what software is installed AWS SSM has us covered through AWS Systems Manager Inventory. The AWS SSM agent automatically pulls software inventory from managed instances, like VMware Cloud on AWS virtual machines, and displays it through the AWS Console. For even more detailed reports and prettier graphics SSM Inventory can be expanded by putting the inventory data into Amazon S3, query it with Amazon Athena and finally access the query result data from Amazon QuickSight. This way it is possible to generate comprehensive and sometimes even beautiful reports.

2. Leveraging VMware Cloud on AWS add-ons

While AWS native services can cover many angles of security and systems management, when it comes to keeping guard inside the VMware Cloud on AWS environment the VMware Cloud on AWS add-on service NSX Advanced Firewall is a powerful solution. NSX Advanced Firewall can be easily be deployed in a VMware Cloud on AWS environment and helps with the security practice of Getting notified and react quickly if a hackers find a foothold in your environment (IDS / IPS). It comes pre-loaded with CVEs to protect against, like SQL injection attacks. However, it can also alert on, and optionally block, both attacks and network scans in real-time.

Disaster recovery is another topic which goes hand-in-hand with good security best practices. Primarily from a standpoint of safeguarding against ransomware. This aligns directly with Guard against ransomware by having immutable backups of important data and virtual machines. For the purposes of DR with VMware Cloud on AWS there are two standout solutions available in VMware Cloud Disaster Recovery (VCDR) and VMware Site Recovery. Both are powerful in their own right and offer recovery from corrupted or encrypted data as well as actual DC disasters of course. Please also refer to AWS Backup in the section below for an AWS alternative to backing up virtual machine data to protect from ransomware and other data loss.

3. Leveraging other AWS native services

A wide variety of AWS native services can be brought to bear to boost security in both a VMware Cloud on AWS or on-premises VMware environment. One aspect is increased insight by centralizing logging and alerting for events and another aspect is backing up data as well as running commands. All these topics are covered in the section below.

CloudWatch and CloudWatch logs

The AWS CloudWatch agent can be installed both in VMware Cloud on AWS and on-premises VMware environments. Instructions for installation are listed here. Once installed, telemetry from virtual machines will be logged in CloudWatch to be used for diagnostics and alerting. Filters can be created where log files are searched for key words and events which can subsequently be used to trigger alerts. Read more about CloudWatch log filtering here: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudWatch/latest/logs/MonitoringLogData.html

CloudTrail and EventBridge

As covered in the Restricting Access section above, once remote access has been configured to be allowed only through SSM Session Manager, API calls done for virtual machine and instance access can be logged in CloudTrail for later review. This gives a central location for the security team to track who accessed what system at what time. Note that tracking only show when a system was accessed by whom and doesn’t extend to what was done at the OS level. Furthermore, EventBridge can be paired with AWS SNS to generate alerts whenever sessions are initiated, resumed or terminated.

SSM Run Command and AWS Config

When it comes to setting appropriate firewall rules and then ensuring they don’t change unless intended there are two solutions which come in handy. For the AWS native side there is AWS Config with which rules for approved configurations can be set and maintained. For the VMware Cloud on AWS side it is possible to use SSM Run Command to regularly check for and apply firewall settings with PowerShell and Linux shell scripts.

AWS Backup

While the VMware Cloud on AWS add-ons like VCDR and Site Recovery can help with Guard against ransomware by having immutable backups of important data and virtual machines, AWS Backup is a cloud-native option for safeguarding virtual machine data. AWS Backup supports both VMware on-premises and in VMware Cloud on AWS.

When registering a vSphere system with AWS Backup a virtual appliance is downloaded and deployed in the VMware environment. After linking with vCenter it is possible to create backup plans for the VMware environment through the AWS Console. AWS Backup take backups by creating a snapshot of the virtual machine and then backing up the snapshot to AWS. The snapshot is discarded after it has been copied to AWS. Initial backups are full and subsequent backups are incremental.


VMware Cloud on AWS is not a standalone solution but integrates well with a variety of AWS native services. In this blog post AWS Systems Manager and related services were leveraged to enhance security of virtual machines running on VMware Cloud on AWS by centralizing access controls and automating OS patch management.

Further reading